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HTML/HTML5 Introduction


HTML5 introduces new features like interactivity,smarter forms, improved semantics, multimedia in addition to existing features.


What is HTML?

1.Any and every webpage is encoded in HTML( Hyper Text Markup Language).

2.A HTML document is a plain text file which is encoded in HTML language.A browser is used to decode the HTML document and display(or render) it to the user

3.All contents within the HTML document is surrounded by tags.These tags enable the browser to determine the formatting, layout and other specifications related to the HTML webpage(or document).

4.HTML international standards and specifications and are defined and maintained by the
World Wide Web Consortium(W3C) and WHATWG.

The specifications of HTML are never complete and is continously evolving as the demand of more features increases.


So what is HTML5?

1.There is a huge buzz surrounding HTML5.HTML5 is a major upgrade to HTML specification, last such upgrade happened some 11 years ago(XHTML 2000)

2.The update introduces new features like interactivity, smart forms, improved multimedia support, better semantics ,offline support etc etc. But all this is in addition to the earlier features and the slate hasn't been wiped clean or every thing done from the scratch.

3.Infact HTML5 is an umbrella term used to describe all the related set of technologies that are used to develop modern and rich in feature web contents. The most important ones are
Cascading style sheets(CSS) and Javascript.


Note- HTML5 does not control the style and design features of the webpage for that we use the Cascading Style Sheet(CSS).

HTML Elements and Tags

1.The HTML web document is made up of elements. Each element is usually made up of two tags start tag and end tag(eg:<start tag> ..... </end tag>).

2.Usually most HTML elements have two-sided tags. The end tag always ends with a forward slash( / ).

<start tag> All your contents go here </end tag>

Note- The html tags are not case-sensitive i.e </body> and </boDY> or even </BODY> will be treated as body element only.

HTML Document Structure

<html>
<head> Title and metadata go here </head>
<body>
<h1> The Main heading </h1>
<p> The paragraph </p>
<h2> The Sub heading </h2>
<p> The paragraph </p>
</body>
</html>

Explanation.

1. The HTML start tag (<html>) denotes the start of html document, and end Tag (</html>) denotes the end of html document.

2. The head tag (<head> .... </head>) contains the title , metadata or links to external javascript and CSS resources.

3. The body tag (<body> .... </body>) indicates that anything within the tags will be displayed by the browsers main window.

4. The contents enclosed within the headings(<h1> .... </h1>) denote the main headings of the contents.

5. The text encapsulated within the paragraph tag (<p> .... </p>) indicates paragraphs or any text

So all the tags function just like containers to store or hold different types of data.(eg: Text, images, multimedia etc).


HTML Evolution over the years.

HTML [1991]

HTML2 [1994]

HTML + CSS [1996]

Javascript [1996]

HTML4 [1997]

CSS 2.0 [1998]

XHTML 1 [2000]

Layouts without Tables[2002]

AJAX [2005]

HTML5 [2009]